A Bone Fracture
A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone is cracked or broken. It is a break in the continuity of the bone. While many fractures are the result of high-force impact or stress, bone fractures can also occur because of certain medical conditions that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis.
A fracture may be complete or partial and is commonly caused by trauma due to a fall, motor vehicle accident or sports injury. Thinning of the bone due to osteoporosis in the elderly can also cause bones to break easily. Overuse injuries are a common cause of stress fractures in athletes.
Types of fractures
Simple fracture: The fractured pieces of bone are well aligned and stable
Unstable fracture- the fragments of the broken bone are misaligned and displaced
Open (compound) fracture: A severe fracture in which the broken bones protrude through the skin. This type of fracture is more prone to infection and requires immediate medical attention.
Greenstick fracture: A fracture unique to children, where one side of the bone is broken while the other is bent
Pediatric Forearm Fracture
The healing of fractures in children is quicker than that in adults. Thus, if a fracture is suspected in a child, it is necessary to seek immediate medical attention for proper alignment of the bones. Forearm bones may break in many ways. Fractures may be “open” where the bone protrudes through the skin, or “closed” where the broken bone does not pierce the skin.
The wrist is comprised of two bones in the forearm, the radius and ulna, and eight tiny carpal bones in the palm. The bones meet to form multiple large and small joints. A wrist fracture refers to a break in one or more of these bones.
Fractures of the Hand and Fingers
A finger fracture is not a minor injury, and if left untreated, can lead to stiffness, pain, disruption of the alignment of the whole hand and interference with specialized functions such as grasping or manipulating objects. Finger fractures commonly occur during sports activities, when you break a fall or while operating machinery.
The scaphoid bone is a small, boat-shaped bone in the wrist, which, along with 7 other bones, forms the wrist joint. It is present on the thumb side of the wrist and is at high risk for fractures. A scaphoid fracture is usually seen in young men aged 20 to 30 years. They can occur at two places: near the thumb or near the forearm.
Adult Forearm Fractures
The forearm is made up of 2 bones, namely, the radius and ulna. The primary function of your forearm is rotation i.e., the ability to turn your palm up and down. The fracture of the forearm affects the ability to rotate your arm, as well as bend and straighten the wrist and elbow. The breaking of the radius or ulna in the middle of the bone requires a strong force and is most commonly seen in adults.
Forearm Fractures in Children
The radius (bone on the thumb side) and ulna (bone on the little-finger side) are the two bones of the forearm. Forearm fractures can occur near the wrist, near the elbow or in the middle of the forearm. Apart from this, the bones in children are prone to a unique injury known as a growth plate fracture.
Distal Radius Fracture
The forearm consists of two bones, the radius, and ulna. The radius is the larger of the two forearm bones. The region towards the wrist is called the distal end. Fractures in this end are most common. The distal radius can get fractured in various ways, but it generally occurs around 1 inch from the distal end of the wrist.
Bennet’s fracture is a break at the base of the first metacarpal bone (thumb bone) that meets the wrist at the first carpometacarpal (CMC) joint. The hand is composed of 3 types of bones: carpals or wrist bones, metacarpals or long hand bones, and phalanges or finger bones. Metacarpals consist of five long bones that connect the carpals with the phalanges.
Hand Fracture Care
The hand is one of the most flexible and useful parts of our body. Because of overuse in various activities, the hands are more prone to injuries, such as sprains and strains, fractures and dislocations, lacerations and amputations while operating machinery, bracing against a fall and sports-related injuries.
Wrist Fracture Fixation
When the fractured ends are significantly displaced, surgery is necessary for wrist fracture fixation. Surgical treatment options include open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) which involves the use of pins, plates, and screws to properly align the fractured ends and stabilize the fracture from the inside.
Distal Humerus Fractures of the Elbow
The elbow is a region between the upper arm and forearm. The elbow joint is made up of 3 bones. The distal (lower) end of the humerus bone in the upper arm joins with the radius and ulna bones in the forearm to form the elbow joint. Injury in the distal humerus can cause impairment in the function of the elbow joint. A distal humerus fracture is a rare condition that occurs when there is a break in the lower end of the humerus.
Radial Head Fractures of the Elbow
Radial head fractures are very common and occur in almost 20% of acute elbow injuries. Elbow dislocations are generally associated with radial head fractures. Radial head fractures are more common in women than in men and occur more frequently in the age group of 30 to 40 years.
The arm in the human body is made up of three bones that join to form a hinge joint called the elbow. The upper arm bone or humerus connects from the shoulder to the elbow to form the top of the hinge joint. The lower arm or forearm consists of two bones, the radius and the ulna. Elbow fractures may occur from trauma, resulting from various reasons: a fall on an outstretched arm, a direct blow to the elbow or an abnormal twist to the joint beyond its functional limit.
Mid-shaft Humerus Fracture
A mid-shaft humerus fracture is a common type of humerus fracture that occurs along the mid-section of the humerus or upper arm bone. The upper arm mainly consists of a single large bone, called the humerus, which connects the shoulder and the elbow together. Connected to the shoulder blade, at the shoulder joint, the humerus narrows down into a cylindrical shaft and joins at its base with the bones of the lower arm to form the elbow joint.
Elbow Fracture Reconstruction
Elbow fracture reconstruction is a surgical procedure employed to repair and restore the appearance and full function of a damaged elbow caused by severe trauma or injury. This may include repairing damaged structures or replacing missing or damaged structures with adjoining skin, muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones, or nerves to restore the appearance and function.
ORIF of the Distal Humerus Fractures
A distal humerus fracture is a condition that occurs when there is a break in the lower end of the humerus bone that commonly occurs as a result of severe trauma. Fracture of the distal humerus can affect the movement and function of your arm as well as your work and activities of daily living.
ORIF Proximal Humerus Fracture
A proximal humerus fracture is a break in the upper arm bone near the shoulder joint. This type of fracture can severely affect the shoulder joint and immediate medical attention is required in order to preserve shoulder function. A fracture to the humerus bone is a possible consequence of a traumatic event, such as a fall or forceful collision.
Non-union Surgery (Elbow)
Non-union is the failure of a broken or fractured bone to heal properly even after appropriate treatment. Non-union surgery of the elbow is an operation performed to restore a broken or fractured bone in your elbow joint that has failed to heal even after appropriate treatment.